Case Study about use and failure of IOT in Aircrafts

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Objective:

                   To demonstrate how the IOT devices increases the performance of the Aircraft and in Aviation Industries and also how the communication can be made effectively.

Introduction:

                   Now a day the automation plays a main role in the all kinds of Industries. In Aviation there were many IOT devices which makes the work of the employees very simple.  Aviation 4.0 refers to the Automation process that can be done to reduce the manpower  in the industries.

Use of IOT devices in Aviation:

Virgin Atlantic’s Boeing 787 Dreamliner:

                                The Internet of Things, in a board sense, is where we are starting to see everything from planes to cargo devices getting connected, said Virgin Atlantic’s then IT director David Bulman in 2013.The latest planes we are getting, the Boeing 787s,are incredibly connected.  Literally every piece of that plane has an internet connection, from the engines, to the flaps, to the landing gear.

                                Every single component of Virgin Atlantic’s Boeing 787 is attached to a wireless airplane network, providing real-time IOT data on everything from performance to required maintenance.

                                The aircraft can produce more than a third of a terabyte of data per flight and each one makes hundreds if not thousands of flights a year. Virgin has to collate and analyse this data, but is already seeing benefits.

Miami Airport:

                           Miami Airport has a network of some 500 beacons providing detailed information and personalized services to customers at its terminals and various concessionaires.

                          Miami International Airport’s new localized app, ‘MIA Airport Official 2.0’, communicates with these beacons, giving gate information, as well as shopping and dinner details.

                           Users are able to scan boarding passes and receive turn-by-turn, blue-dot navigation guides to their gates which will include estimated walk times, real-time flight updates, even suggestions for nearby shopping and dining, based on a customizable personal profile.

Lufthansa Airlines:

                           A little less than six months ago Lufthansa went live with the launch of its RIMOWA Electronic tag, a mobility solution designed to track luggage from the terminal to the flight.

                           The RIMOWA Electronic Tag is an electronic luggage tag which displays baggage info in the same format, size and appearance of typical paper labels, but on a digital screen built into the luggage unit and located near the handle.

                           Travelers with a Rimowa electronic tag-enabled bag can send their digital boarding info via Bluetooth from their Smartphone to check their bag before they leave home, with details appearing on the bag’s electronic display. After arriving at the airport, they simply hand it in at the airline’s automated check-in station.

Delta:

                           In October 2015, Delta Air Lines partnered with Bit Stew Systems to deploy an IOT analytics system on part of its fleet, with the goal of improving airplane maintenance.

                        Aiming to improve aircraft performance, Bit Stew’s Mix Core platform is designed to unify “billions of traditionally siloed data points across aviation and air traffic management to increase awareness, discover new business insights, improve operations and asset performance”.

                        By ingesting and analysing vast amounts of aviation data, Bit Stew says it can help airlines by reducing downtime and lowering fuel costs.

                        Delta is also using tracking technology from Sendum Wireless to offer GPS tracking for pets shipped. The system provides real-time location, temperature and humidity data. As of 2015, the service was offered at a number of U.S. airports.

Accidents due to the Failure of IOT Devices:

Air France Flight 447:

                        In this crash 216 passengers and 12 crew killed. The French air safety authority BEA said that pitot tube icing was a contributing factor in the crash of  into the Atlantic Ocean.. The BEA’s final report concluded that the aircraft crashed after temporary inconsistencies between the airspeed measurements likely due to the aircraft’s pitot tubes being obstructed by ice crystals caused the autopilot to disconnect, after which the crew reacted incorrectly and ultimately caused the aircraft to enter an aerodynamic stall, from which it did not recover.

Boeing 737- MAX Crash:

                       The Lion Air crashes on 29 October 2018 were due to the failure of sensor. The Aircrafts crashed shortly after the takeoff. The causes of this crash pointed to erroneous data from a sensor causing the aircraft’s new automated stabilizer system to push the jet’s nose down. The pilots struggled to pull the plane up, and it crashed into the sea.

Virgin Atlantic’s Airbus A340-600:

                        On 8 February 2005, on board an Airbus A340-600 aircraft (G-VATL) en route from Hong Kong to Heathrow, the fuel control computer system caused a loss of automatic fuel transfer between tanks. The left outboard engine lost power, and shortly afterwards the right outboard engine also began to falter until the crew began to crossfeed fuel manually. The pilots diverted to Amsterdam and landed safely. The interim accident report made four safety recommendations addressed to the primary certification bodies for large transport category aircraft (EASA and the FAA), advising on the need for a low-fuel warning system for large aircraft.

Conclusion:

                   Thus the use and Failure of IOT devices in the aircraft is studied and concluded.

                                                                                           By,

K.  GANAPATHY SUBRAMANIAN

S.  CHANDRASEKAR

U.  MUTHUKUMAR

B.E- Aeronautical,

Nehru Institute of Engineering and Technology,

Coimbatore.

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